What does i.e. e.g. etc. AM PM mean?? List of all Latin abbreviations!!

Ever wondered what does i.e. or e.g. mean? Actually they are abbreviations of Latin words. Here's a complete list of those short forms you should be knowing!


A.B. (Artium Baccalaureus)
Bachelor of Arts

A.C. (ante Christum)
before Christ

A.D. (anno domini)
in the year of the Lord

ad inf., ad infin. (ad infinitum)
to infinity

ad int. (ad interim)
in the meantime

ad fin. (ad finem)
near the end [of the page]

ad loc. (ad locum)
to the place

ad val. (ad valorem)
according to the value

ae., aet., aetat. (aetatis)
of age, aged

Ag (argentum)
silver

A.M. (anno mundi)
in the year of the world

A.M. (ante meridiem)
before midday

A.M. (ante mortem)
before death

A.M. (Artium Magister)
Master of Arts

A.R. (anno regni)
in the year of the reign

a.u.c. (ab urbe condita, anno urbis conditae)
from the founding of the city

B.A. (Baccalaureus Artium)
Bachelor of Arts

B.D. (Baccalaureus Divinitatis)
Bachelor of Divinity

B.L. (Baccalaureus Legum)
Bachelor of Law

B.Lit. (Baccalaureus Lit[t]erarum)
Bachelor of Literature (or Letters)

B.M. (Baccalaureus Medicinae)
Bachelor of Medicine

B.Mus. (Baccalaureus Musicae)
Bachelor of Music

B.Phil. (Baccalaureus Philosophiae)
Bachelor of Philosophy

B.S., B.Sc. (Baccalaureus Scientiae)
Bachelor of Science

c. (cum)
with

ca., cir., circ. (circa)
about

cf. (confer)
compare

D.D. (Divinitatis Doctor)
Doctor of Divinity

D.G. (Dei Gratia)
By the grace of God

D.Lit. (Doctor Litterarum)
Doctor of Literature

D.M. (Doctor Medicinae)
Doctor of Medicine

d.s.p. (decessit sine prole)
Died without issue

D.V. (Deo volente)
God willing

e.g. (exempli gratia)
for [the sake of an] example

et al. (et alii, et alia)
and others

etc. (et cetera)
and the rest, and so forth

et seq. (et sequens, et sequentes, et sequentia)
and the following

ff. (foliis)
on the [following] pages

hab. corp. (habeas corpus)
you may have the body

H.J.S. (hic iacet sepultus)
here lies buried

H.R.I.P. (hic requiescit in pace)
here rests in peace

ib., ibid. (ibidem)
in the same place

id. (idem)
the same

i.e. (id est)
that is

in loc. (in loco)
in the place

J.C.D. (Iuris Civilis Doctor)
Doctor of Civil Law

J.D. (Iuris Doctor)
Doctor of Law

J.U.D. (Iuris Ultriusque Doctor)
Doctor of both Civil and Canon Law

lb. (libra)
pound

l.c., loc. cit. (loco citato)
in the place cited

LL. D. (Legum Doctor)
Doctor of Laws

loq. (loquitur)
he (she, it) speaks

m.(meridies)
midday

M.A. (Magister Artium)
Master of Arts

M.D. (Medicinae Doctor)
Doctor of Medicine

M.O. (modus operandi)
method of operating

N.B. (Nota bene)
Note well

no. (numero)
by number

non obst. (non obstante)
notwithstanding

non seq. (non sequitur)
it does not follow

N.P. (nisi prisus)
no protest

n.r. (non repetatur)
do not repeat

ob. (obiit)
he died

op. cit. (opere citato)
in the work cited

p.d. (per diem)
by the day

per an. (per annum)
by the year

per cent. (per centum)
per hundred

Ph. D. (Philosophiae Doctor)
Doctor of Philosophy

P.M. (post meridiem)
after midday

p.r.n. (pro re nata)
as the need arises

pro tem. (pro tempore)
for the time, temporarily

prox. (proximo mense)
next month

P.S. (post scriptum)
written after

Q. (quasi)
as it were, almost

q.d. (quaque die)
every day

R. (regina, rex)
Queen, King

R.I.P. (Requiescat in pace)
May he rest in peace

Rx. (recipe)
take

S.C. (Senatus Consultum)
decree of the Senate

S.C.U. (Senatus Consultum Ultimum)
final decree of the Senate (martial law)

s.d. (sine die)
without [appointing] a day

seq., seqq. (sequentia)
following

s.i.d. (semel in die)
once a day

s.p. (sine prole)
without issue

S.P.Q.R. (Senatus Populusque Romanus)
The Senate and the Roman People

stat. (statim)
immediately

s.v. (sub vero)
under the word

tal. (talis)
of such

U.D. (ut dictum)
as directed

ult. (ultimo mense)
last month

vox pop. (vox populi)
voice of the people

vs. (versus)
against

v.s. (vide super)
see above

Command for special Symbols in Latex

Operators

SymbolCommandSymbolCommandSymbolCommand
\pm\pm\mp\mp\times\times
\div\div\cdot\cdot\ast\ast
\star\star\dagger\dagger\ddagger\ddagger
\amalg\amalg\cap\cap\cup\cup
\uplus\uplus\sqcap\sqcap\sqcup\sqcup
\vee\vee\wedge\wedge\oplus\oplus
\ominus\ominus\otimes\otimes\circ\circ
\bullet\bullet\diamond\diamond\lhd\lhd
\rhd\rhd\unlhd\unlhdUnrhd.gif\unrhd
\oslash\oslash\odot\odot\bigcirc\bigcirc
\triangleleft\triangleleft\Diamond\Diamond\bigtriangleup\bigtriangleup
\bigtriangledown\bigtriangledown\Box\Box\triangleright\triangleright
\setminus\setminus\wr\wr\sqrt{x}\sqrt{x}
x^{\circ}x^{\circ}


Relations

SymbolCommandSymbolCommandSymbolCommand
\le\le\ge\ge\neq\neq
\sim\sim\ll\ll\gg\gg
\doteq\doteq\simeq\simeq\subset\subset
\supset\supset\approx\approx\asymp\asymp
\subseteq\subseteq\supseteq\supseteq\cong\cong
\smile\smile\sqsubset\sqsubset\sqsupset\sqsupset
\equiv\equiv\frown\frown\sqsubseteq\sqsubseteq
\sqsupseteq\sqsupseteq\propto\propto\bowtie\bowtie
\in\in\ni\ni\prec\prec
\succ\succ\vdash\vdash\dashv\dashv
\preceq\preceq\succeq\succeq\models\models
\perp\perp\parallel\parallel\|\|
\mid\mid
Negations of many of these relations can be formed by just putting \not before the symbol, or by slipping an n between the \ and the word. Here are a few examples, plus a few other negations; it works for many of the others as well.
SymbolCommandSymbolCommandSymbolCommand
\nmid\nmid\nleq\nleq\ngeq\ngeq
\nsim\nsim\ncong\ncong\nparallel\nparallel
\not<\not<\not>\not>\not=\not=
\not\le\not\le\not\ge\not\ge\not\sim\not\sim
\not \approx\not\approx\not\cong\not\cong\not\equiv\not\equiv
\not\parallel\not\parallel\nless\nless\ngtr\ngtr
\lneq\lneq\gneq\gneq\lnsim\lnsim
\lneqq\lneqq\gneqq\gneqq
To use other relations not listed here, such as =, >, and <, in LaTeX, you may just use the symbols on your keyboard.

Greek Letters

Lowercase Letters
SymbolCommandSymbolCommandSymbolCommandSymbolCommand
\alpha\alpha\beta\beta\gamma\gamma\delta\delta
\epsilon\epsilon\varepsilon\varepsilon\zeta\zeta\eta\eta
\theta\theta\vartheta\vartheta\iota\iota\kappa\kappa
\lambda\lambda\mu\mu\nu\nu\xi\xi
\pi\pi\varpi\varpi\rho\rho\varrho\varrho
\sigma\sigma\varsigma\varsigma\tau\tau\upsilon\upsilon
\phi\phi\varphi\varphi\chi\chi\psi\psi
\omega\omega

Capital Letters
SymbolCommandSymbolCommandSymbolCommandSymbolCommand
\Gamma\Gamma\Delta\Delta\Theta\Theta\Lambda\Lambda
\Xi\Xi\Pi\Pi\Sigma\Sigma\Upsilon\Upsilon
\Phi\Phi\Psi\Psi\Omega\Omega

Headline text

Arrows

SymbolCommandSymbolCommand
\gets\gets\to\to
\leftarrow\leftarrow\Leftarrow\Leftarrow
\rightarrow\rightarrow\Rightarrow\Rightarrow
\leftrightarrow\leftrightarrow\Leftrightarrow\Leftrightarrow
\mapsto\mapsto\hookleftarrow\hookleftarrow
\leftharpoonup\leftharpoonup\leftharpoondown\leftharpoondown
\rightleftharpoons\rightleftharpoons\longleftarrow\longleftarrow
\Longleftarrow\Longleftarrow\longrightarrow\longrightarrow
\Longrightarrow\Longrightarrow\longleftrightarrow\longleftrightarrow
\Longleftrightarrow\Longleftrightarrow\longmapsto\longmapsto
\hookrightarrow\hookrightarrow\rightharpoonup\rightharpoonup
\rightharpoondown\rightharpoondown\leadsto\leadsto
\uparrow\uparrow\Uparrow\Uparrow
\downarrow\downarrow\Downarrow\Downarrow
\updownarrow\updownarrow\Updownarrow\Updownarrow
\nearrow\nearrow\searrow\searrow
\swarrow\swarrow\nwarrow\nwarrow
(For those of you who hate typing long strings of letters, \iff and \implies can be used in place of \Longleftrightarrow and \Longrightarrow respectively.)


Dots

Accents



SymbolCommandSymbolCommandSymbolCommand
\hat{x}\hat{x}\check{x}\check{x}\dot{x}\dot{x}
\breve{x}\breve{x}\acute{x}\acute{x}\ddot{x}\ddot{x}
\grave{x}\grave{x}\tilde{x}\tilde{x}\mathring{x}\mathring{x}
\bar{x}\bar{x}\vec{x}\vec{x}

When applying accents to i and j, you can use \imath and \jmath to keep the dots from interfering with the accents:

SymbolCommandSymbolCommand
\vec{\jmath}\vec{\jmath}\tilde{\imath}\tilde{\imath}
\tilde and \hat have wide versions that allow you to accent an expression:
SymbolCommandSymbolCommand
\widehat{3+x}\widehat{3+x}\widetilde{abc}\widetilde{abc}


Others

SymbolCommandSymbolCommandSymbolCommand
\infty\infty\triangle\triangle\angle\angle
\aleph\aleph\hbar\hbar\imath\imath
\jmath\jmath\ell\ell\wp\wp
\Re\Re\Im\Im\mho\mho
\prime\prime\emptyset\emptyset\nabla\nabla
\surd\surd\partial\partial\top\top
\bot\bot\vdash\vdash\dashv\dashv
\forall\forall\exists\exists\neg\neg
\flat\flat\natural\natural\sharp\sharp
\backslash\backslash\Box\Box\Diamond\Diamond
\clubsuit\clubsuit\diamondsuit\diamondsuit\heartsuit\heartsuit
Spadesuit.gif\spadesuit\Join\Join\blacksquare\blacksquare
\S\S\P\P\copyright\copyright
\pounds\pounds\overarc{ABC}\overarc{ABC}(it works)\underarc{XYZ}\underarc{XYZ}(it works)



Command Symbols

Some symbols are used in commands so they need to be treated in a special way.
SymbolCommandSymbolCommandSymbolCommandSymbolCommand
\textdollar\textdollar\&\&\%\%\#\#
\_\_\{\{\}\}\backslash\backslash
(Warning: Using \$ for \textdollar will result in &#036;. This is a bug as far as we know. Depending on the version of LaTex this is not always a problem.)


European Language Symbols














SymbolCommandSymbolCommandSymbolCommandSymbolCommand
{\oe}{\oe}{\ae}{\ae}{\aa}{\aa}{\o}{\o}
{\OE}{\OE}{\AE}{\AE}{\AA}{\AA}{\O}{\O}
{\l}{\l}{\ss}{\ss}\text{!`}!`
{\L}{\L}{\SS}{\SS}}









Bracketing Symbols

In mathematics, sometimes we need to enclose expressions in brackets or braces or parentheses. Some of these work just as you'd imagine in LaTeX; type ( and ) for parentheses, [ and ] for brackets, and | and | for absolute value. However, other symbols have special commands:
SymbolCommandSymbolCommandSymbolCommand
\{\{\}\}\|\|
\backslash\backslash\lfloor\lfloor\rfloor\rfloor
\lceil\lceil\rceil\rceil\langle\langle
\rangle\rangle
You might notice that if you use any of these to typeset an expression that is vertically large, like
(\frac{a}{x} )^2
the parentheses don't come out the right size:
(\frac{a}{x})^2
If we put \left and \right before the relevant parentheses, we get a prettier expression:
\left(\frac{a}{x} \right)^2
gives
\left(\frac{a}{x} \right)^2
\left and \right can also be used to resize the following symbols:
SymbolCommandSymbolCommandSymbolCommand
\uparrow\uparrow\downarrow\downarrow\updownarrow\updownarrow
\Uparrow\Uparrow\Downarrow\Downarrow\Updownarrow\Updownarrow




Multi-size Symbols

Some symbols render differently in inline math mode and in display mode. Display mode occurs when you use \[...\] or $$...$$, or environments like \begin{equation}...\end{equation}, \begin{align}...\end{align}. Read more in the commands section of the guide about how symbols which take arguments above and below the symbols, such as a summation symbol, behave in the two modes.
In each of the following, the two images show the symbol in display mode, then in inline mode.
SymbolCommandSymbolCommandSymbolCommand
\sum  \textstyle\sum\sum\int  \textstyle\int\int\oint  \textstyle\oint\oint
\prod  \textstyle\prod\prod\coprod  \textstyle\coprod\coprod\bigcap  \textstyle\bigcap\bigcap
\bigcup  \textstyle\bigcup\bigcup\bigsqcup  \textstyle\bigsqcup\bigsqcup\bigvee  \textstyle\bigvee\bigvee
\bigwedge  \textstyle\bigwedge\bigwedge\bigodot  \textstyle\bigodot\bigodot\bigotimes  \textstyle\bigotimes\bigotimes
\bigoplus  \textstyle\bigoplus\bigoplus

NOTE : Know some useful symbols using Alt+[number] from your keyboard. Check it out here.