Command for special Symbols in Latex

Operators

SymbolCommandSymbolCommandSymbolCommand
\pm\pm\mp\mp\times\times
\div\div\cdot\cdot\ast\ast
\star\star\dagger\dagger\ddagger\ddagger
\amalg\amalg\cap\cap\cup\cup
\uplus\uplus\sqcap\sqcap\sqcup\sqcup
\vee\vee\wedge\wedge\oplus\oplus
\ominus\ominus\otimes\otimes\circ\circ
\bullet\bullet\diamond\diamond\lhd\lhd
\rhd\rhd\unlhd\unlhdUnrhd.gif\unrhd
\oslash\oslash\odot\odot\bigcirc\bigcirc
\triangleleft\triangleleft\Diamond\Diamond\bigtriangleup\bigtriangleup
\bigtriangledown\bigtriangledown\Box\Box\triangleright\triangleright
\setminus\setminus\wr\wr\sqrt{x}\sqrt{x}
x^{\circ}x^{\circ}


Relations

SymbolCommandSymbolCommandSymbolCommand
\le\le\ge\ge\neq\neq
\sim\sim\ll\ll\gg\gg
\doteq\doteq\simeq\simeq\subset\subset
\supset\supset\approx\approx\asymp\asymp
\subseteq\subseteq\supseteq\supseteq\cong\cong
\smile\smile\sqsubset\sqsubset\sqsupset\sqsupset
\equiv\equiv\frown\frown\sqsubseteq\sqsubseteq
\sqsupseteq\sqsupseteq\propto\propto\bowtie\bowtie
\in\in\ni\ni\prec\prec
\succ\succ\vdash\vdash\dashv\dashv
\preceq\preceq\succeq\succeq\models\models
\perp\perp\parallel\parallel\|\|
\mid\mid
Negations of many of these relations can be formed by just putting \not before the symbol, or by slipping an n between the \ and the word. Here are a few examples, plus a few other negations; it works for many of the others as well.
SymbolCommandSymbolCommandSymbolCommand
\nmid\nmid\nleq\nleq\ngeq\ngeq
\nsim\nsim\ncong\ncong\nparallel\nparallel
\not<\not<\not>\not>\not=\not=
\not\le\not\le\not\ge\not\ge\not\sim\not\sim
\not \approx\not\approx\not\cong\not\cong\not\equiv\not\equiv
\not\parallel\not\parallel\nless\nless\ngtr\ngtr
\lneq\lneq\gneq\gneq\lnsim\lnsim
\lneqq\lneqq\gneqq\gneqq
To use other relations not listed here, such as =, >, and <, in LaTeX, you may just use the symbols on your keyboard.

Greek Letters

Lowercase Letters
SymbolCommandSymbolCommandSymbolCommandSymbolCommand
\alpha\alpha\beta\beta\gamma\gamma\delta\delta
\epsilon\epsilon\varepsilon\varepsilon\zeta\zeta\eta\eta
\theta\theta\vartheta\vartheta\iota\iota\kappa\kappa
\lambda\lambda\mu\mu\nu\nu\xi\xi
\pi\pi\varpi\varpi\rho\rho\varrho\varrho
\sigma\sigma\varsigma\varsigma\tau\tau\upsilon\upsilon
\phi\phi\varphi\varphi\chi\chi\psi\psi
\omega\omega

Capital Letters
SymbolCommandSymbolCommandSymbolCommandSymbolCommand
\Gamma\Gamma\Delta\Delta\Theta\Theta\Lambda\Lambda
\Xi\Xi\Pi\Pi\Sigma\Sigma\Upsilon\Upsilon
\Phi\Phi\Psi\Psi\Omega\Omega

Headline text

Arrows

SymbolCommandSymbolCommand
\gets\gets\to\to
\leftarrow\leftarrow\Leftarrow\Leftarrow
\rightarrow\rightarrow\Rightarrow\Rightarrow
\leftrightarrow\leftrightarrow\Leftrightarrow\Leftrightarrow
\mapsto\mapsto\hookleftarrow\hookleftarrow
\leftharpoonup\leftharpoonup\leftharpoondown\leftharpoondown
\rightleftharpoons\rightleftharpoons\longleftarrow\longleftarrow
\Longleftarrow\Longleftarrow\longrightarrow\longrightarrow
\Longrightarrow\Longrightarrow\longleftrightarrow\longleftrightarrow
\Longleftrightarrow\Longleftrightarrow\longmapsto\longmapsto
\hookrightarrow\hookrightarrow\rightharpoonup\rightharpoonup
\rightharpoondown\rightharpoondown\leadsto\leadsto
\uparrow\uparrow\Uparrow\Uparrow
\downarrow\downarrow\Downarrow\Downarrow
\updownarrow\updownarrow\Updownarrow\Updownarrow
\nearrow\nearrow\searrow\searrow
\swarrow\swarrow\nwarrow\nwarrow
(For those of you who hate typing long strings of letters, \iff and \implies can be used in place of \Longleftrightarrow and \Longrightarrow respectively.)


Dots

Accents



SymbolCommandSymbolCommandSymbolCommand
\hat{x}\hat{x}\check{x}\check{x}\dot{x}\dot{x}
\breve{x}\breve{x}\acute{x}\acute{x}\ddot{x}\ddot{x}
\grave{x}\grave{x}\tilde{x}\tilde{x}\mathring{x}\mathring{x}
\bar{x}\bar{x}\vec{x}\vec{x}

When applying accents to i and j, you can use \imath and \jmath to keep the dots from interfering with the accents:

SymbolCommandSymbolCommand
\vec{\jmath}\vec{\jmath}\tilde{\imath}\tilde{\imath}
\tilde and \hat have wide versions that allow you to accent an expression:
SymbolCommandSymbolCommand
\widehat{3+x}\widehat{3+x}\widetilde{abc}\widetilde{abc}


Others

SymbolCommandSymbolCommandSymbolCommand
\infty\infty\triangle\triangle\angle\angle
\aleph\aleph\hbar\hbar\imath\imath
\jmath\jmath\ell\ell\wp\wp
\Re\Re\Im\Im\mho\mho
\prime\prime\emptyset\emptyset\nabla\nabla
\surd\surd\partial\partial\top\top
\bot\bot\vdash\vdash\dashv\dashv
\forall\forall\exists\exists\neg\neg
\flat\flat\natural\natural\sharp\sharp
\backslash\backslash\Box\Box\Diamond\Diamond
\clubsuit\clubsuit\diamondsuit\diamondsuit\heartsuit\heartsuit
Spadesuit.gif\spadesuit\Join\Join\blacksquare\blacksquare
\S\S\P\P\copyright\copyright
\pounds\pounds\overarc{ABC}\overarc{ABC}(it works)\underarc{XYZ}\underarc{XYZ}(it works)



Command Symbols

Some symbols are used in commands so they need to be treated in a special way.
SymbolCommandSymbolCommandSymbolCommandSymbolCommand
\textdollar\textdollar\&\&\%\%\#\#
\_\_\{\{\}\}\backslash\backslash
(Warning: Using \$ for \textdollar will result in &#036;. This is a bug as far as we know. Depending on the version of LaTex this is not always a problem.)


European Language Symbols














SymbolCommandSymbolCommandSymbolCommandSymbolCommand
{\oe}{\oe}{\ae}{\ae}{\aa}{\aa}{\o}{\o}
{\OE}{\OE}{\AE}{\AE}{\AA}{\AA}{\O}{\O}
{\l}{\l}{\ss}{\ss}\text{!`}!`
{\L}{\L}{\SS}{\SS}}









Bracketing Symbols

In mathematics, sometimes we need to enclose expressions in brackets or braces or parentheses. Some of these work just as you'd imagine in LaTeX; type ( and ) for parentheses, [ and ] for brackets, and | and | for absolute value. However, other symbols have special commands:
SymbolCommandSymbolCommandSymbolCommand
\{\{\}\}\|\|
\backslash\backslash\lfloor\lfloor\rfloor\rfloor
\lceil\lceil\rceil\rceil\langle\langle
\rangle\rangle
You might notice that if you use any of these to typeset an expression that is vertically large, like
(\frac{a}{x} )^2
the parentheses don't come out the right size:
(\frac{a}{x})^2
If we put \left and \right before the relevant parentheses, we get a prettier expression:
\left(\frac{a}{x} \right)^2
gives
\left(\frac{a}{x} \right)^2
\left and \right can also be used to resize the following symbols:
SymbolCommandSymbolCommandSymbolCommand
\uparrow\uparrow\downarrow\downarrow\updownarrow\updownarrow
\Uparrow\Uparrow\Downarrow\Downarrow\Updownarrow\Updownarrow




Multi-size Symbols

Some symbols render differently in inline math mode and in display mode. Display mode occurs when you use \[...\] or $$...$$, or environments like \begin{equation}...\end{equation}, \begin{align}...\end{align}. Read more in the commands section of the guide about how symbols which take arguments above and below the symbols, such as a summation symbol, behave in the two modes.
In each of the following, the two images show the symbol in display mode, then in inline mode.
SymbolCommandSymbolCommandSymbolCommand
\sum  \textstyle\sum\sum\int  \textstyle\int\int\oint  \textstyle\oint\oint
\prod  \textstyle\prod\prod\coprod  \textstyle\coprod\coprod\bigcap  \textstyle\bigcap\bigcap
\bigcup  \textstyle\bigcup\bigcup\bigsqcup  \textstyle\bigsqcup\bigsqcup\bigvee  \textstyle\bigvee\bigvee
\bigwedge  \textstyle\bigwedge\bigwedge\bigodot  \textstyle\bigodot\bigodot\bigotimes  \textstyle\bigotimes\bigotimes
\bigoplus  \textstyle\bigoplus\bigoplus

NOTE : Know some useful symbols using Alt+[number] from your keyboard. Check it out here.

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